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Encyclopedia article about spin. What made you want to look up spin? Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible.

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Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram. Synonyms for spin Synonyms: Verb gyrate , pinwheel , pirouette , revolve , roll , rotate , turn , twirl , wheel , whirl Synonyms: Noun gyration , pirouette , reel , revolution , roll , rotation , twirl , wheel , whirl Visit the Thesaurus for More.

Examples of spin in a Sentence Verb The car hit a patch of ice and spun into the wall. The children were spinning a top.

I tried to stand up but the room was spinning. She spun the silk into thread. They spun the wool into yarn. A baseball thrown with spin is harder to hit.

She put spin on the ball. The bowler put a sideways spin on the ball. Each author puts a new spin on the story.

They claim to report the news with no spin. He took me for a spin in his new car. Would you like to go for a spin?

Recent Examples on the Web: Spin - definition of spin by The Free Dictionary https: To rotate rapidly; whirl. See Synonyms at turn.

To have a sensation of whirling, as from dizziness; reel: My head spun after I did a cartwheel. To fish with a light rod, lure, and line and a reel with a stationary spool.

To cause to rotate swiftly; twirl: Informal To play a recorded piece of music, such as a phonograph record , especially as a disc jockey.

To provide an interpretation of a statement or event, for example , especially in a way meant to sway public opinion: To draw out and twist fibers into thread.

To form a web or cocoon, for example by extruding viscous filaments. To relate or create: A state of mental confusion: Informal A short drive in a vehicle: The flight condition of an aircraft in a nose-down, spiraling, stalled descent.

A distinctive point of view, emphasis, or interpretation: A distinctive character or style: The angular momentum of rotation of a rigid body about its own axis.

The intrinsic angular momentum of a subatomic particle. Also called spin angular momentum. To rotate out of control, as a skidding car leaving a roadway.

To prolong or extend: Zoology of spiders, silkworms, etc to form webs, cocoons, etc from a silky fibre exuded from the body. Metallurgy tr to shape metal into a rounded form on a lathe.

Ball Games, other than specified to bowl, pitch, hit, or kick a ball so that it rotates in the air and changes direction or speed on bouncing, or of a ball to be projected in this way.

Aeronautics to cause an aircraft to dive in a spiral descent or of an aircraft to dive in a spiral descent. Angling intr to fish by drawing a revolving lure through the water.

General Physics physics a. Aeronautics a condition of loss of control of an aircraft or an intentional flight manoeuvre in which the aircraft performs a continuous spiral descent because the angle of maximum lift is less than the angle of incidence.

### Spin. Video

Dead Or Alive - You Spin Me Round (Like a Record) (Official Video) We recommend the use of our service only from 16 years upwards. Words that rhyme with spin. More from Merriam-Webster on spin Rhyming Dictionary: To cause to rotate swiftly; twirl: Jackson, John David From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Translation of spin for Arabic Eurojackpot ergebnisse freitag. Dictionary Entries near spin Spilornis mr bet online casino review spilth spin spina bifida Spinacea spinacene. Precise measurements of the g -factor of the electron have played an important role in the development and verification of quantum electrodynamics. By taking Kronecker products of this representation with itself repeatedly, one may construct all higher irreducible representations. They took the character of the uncle and spun off another TV series. All synonyms and antonyms for spin Spanish Central: Electron spin plays an important role in*spin.*with applications for instance in computer memories. Adresse casino bad wiessee maximum of two accounts per person are permitted. However, for statistically large collections online casino magic tree particles that have been placed in the same pure quantum state, such as through the use of a Stern—Gerlach apparatusthe

**spin.**vector does have a well-defined experimental meaning:

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He took me for a spin in his new car. Would you like to go for a spin? Recent Examples on the Web: May the dork be with you," 25 Dec. Lavish International Parties," 30 Nov.

First Known Use of spin Verb before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at intransitive sense 1 Noun , in the meaning defined at sense 1a.

Learn More about spin. Resources for spin Time Traveler! Explore the year a word first appeared. From the Editors at Merriam-Webster.

Dictionary Entries near spin Spilornis spilosite spilth spin spina bifida Spinacea spinacene. Time Traveler for spin The first known use of spin was before the 12th century See more words from the same century.

More Definitions for spin. The room was spinning. More from Merriam-Webster on spin Rhyming Dictionary: Words that rhyme with spin Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for spin Spanish Central: Translation of spin Nglish: Translation of spin for Spanish Speakers Britannica English: Translation of spin for Arabic Speakers Britannica.

Comments on spin What made you want to look up spin? Get Word of the Day daily email! Need even more definitions? A Battle of Words Boston vs.

As a qualitative concept, the spin vector is often handy because it is easy to picture classically. For instance, quantum mechanical spin can exhibit phenomena analogous to classical gyroscopic effects.

The result is that the spin vector undergoes precession , just like a classical gyroscope. This phenomenon is known as electron spin resonance ESR.

The equivalent behaviour of protons in atomic nuclei is used in nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy and imaging. Mathematically, quantum-mechanical spin states are described by vector-like objects known as spinors.

There are subtle differences between the behavior of spinors and vectors under coordinate rotations. To return the particle to its exact original state, one needs a degree rotation.

A spin-zero particle can only have a single quantum state, even after torque is applied. Rotating a spin-2 particle degrees can bring it back to the same quantum state and a spin-4 particle should be rotated 90 degrees to bring it back to the same quantum state.

The spin-2 particle can be analogous to a straight stick that looks the same even after it is rotated degrees and a spin 0 particle can be imagined as sphere, which looks the same after whatever angle it is turned through.

Spin obeys commutation relations analogous to those of the orbital angular momentum:. It follows as with angular momentum that the eigenvectors of S 2 and S z expressed as kets in the total S basis are:.

The spin raising and lowering operators acting on these eigenvectors give:. But unlike orbital angular momentum the eigenvectors are not spherical harmonics.

There is also no reason to exclude half-integer values of s and m s. In addition to their other properties, all quantum mechanical particles possess an intrinsic spin though this value may be equal to zero.

One distinguishes bosons integer spin and fermions half-integer spin. The total angular momentum conserved in interaction processes is then the sum of the orbital angular momentum and the spin.

For systems of N identical particles this is related to the Pauli exclusion principle , which states that by interchanges of any two of the N particles one must have.

In quantum mechanics all particles are either bosons or fermions. In some speculative relativistic quantum field theories " supersymmetric " particles also exist, where linear combinations of bosonic and fermionic components appear.

The above permutation postulate for N -particle state functions has most-important consequences in daily life, e. As described above, quantum mechanics states that components of angular momentum measured along any direction can only take a number of discrete values.

Since these numbers depend on the choice of the axis, they transform into each other non-trivially when this axis is rotated.

Further, rotations preserve the quantum mechanical inner product, and so should our transformation matrices:. Mathematically speaking, these matrices furnish a unitary projective representation of the rotation group SO 3.

Each such representation corresponds to a representation of the covering group of SO 3 , which is SU 2. Starting with S x. Using the spin operator commutation relations , we see that the commutators evaluate to i S y for the odd terms in the series, and to S x for all of the even terms.

Note that since we only relied on the spin operator commutation relations, this proof holds for any dimension i. A generic rotation in 3-dimensional space can be built by compounding operators of this type using Euler angles:.

An irreducible representation of this group of operators is furnished by the Wigner D-matrix:. Recalling that a generic spin state can be written as a superposition of states with definite m , we see that if s is an integer, the values of m are all integers, and this matrix corresponds to the identity operator.

This fact is a crucial element of the proof of the spin-statistics theorem. We could try the same approach to determine the behavior of spin under general Lorentz transformations , but we would immediately discover a major obstacle.

Unlike SO 3 , the group of Lorentz transformations SO 3,1 is non-compact and therefore does not have any faithful, unitary, finite-dimensional representations.

These spinors transform under Lorentz transformations according to the law. It can be shown that the scalar product. The corresponding normalized eigenvectors are:.

Because any eigenvector multiplied by a constant is still an eigenvector, there is ambiguity about the overall sign. In this article, the convention is chosen to make the first element imaginary and negative if there is a sign ambiguity.

The present convention is used by software such as sympy; while many physics textbooks, such as Sakurai and Griffiths, prefer to make it real and positive.

By the postulates of quantum mechanics , an experiment designed to measure the electron spin on the x -, y -, or z -axis can only yield an eigenvalue of the corresponding spin operator S x , S y or S z on that axis, i.

The quantum state of a particle with respect to spin , can be represented by a two component spinor:. Following the measurement, the spin state of the particle will collapse into the corresponding eigenstate.

The operator to measure spin along an arbitrary axis direction is easily obtained from the Pauli spin matrices. Then the operator for spin in this direction is simply.

This method of finding the operator for spin in an arbitrary direction generalizes to higher spin states, one takes the dot product of the direction with a vector of the three operators for the three x -, y -, z -axis directions.

In quantum mechanics, vectors are termed "normalized" when multiplied by a normalizing factor, which results in the vector having a length of unity.

Since the Pauli matrices do not commute , measurements of spin along the different axes are incompatible. This means that if, for example, we know the spin along the x -axis, and we then measure the spin along the y -axis, we have invalidated our previous knowledge of the x -axis spin.

This can be seen from the property of the eigenvectors i. This implies that the original measurement of the spin along the x-axis is no longer valid, since the spin along the x -axis will now be measured to have either eigenvalue with equal probability.

By taking Kronecker products of this representation with itself repeatedly, one may construct all higher irreducible representations.

That is, the resulting spin operators for higher spin systems in three spatial dimensions, for arbitrarily large s , can be calculated using this spin operator and ladder operators.

Also useful in the quantum mechanics of multiparticle systems, the general Pauli group G n is defined to consist of all n -fold tensor products of Pauli matrices.

For example, see the isotopes of bismuth in which the List of isotopes includes the column Nuclear spin and parity. Spin has important theoretical implications and practical applications.

Well-established direct applications of spin include:. Electron spin plays an important role in magnetism , with applications for instance in computer memories.

The manipulation of nuclear spin by radiofrequency waves nuclear magnetic resonance is important in chemical spectroscopy and medical imaging.

Spin-orbit coupling leads to the fine structure of atomic spectra, which is used in atomic clocks and in the modern definition of the second.

Precise measurements of the g -factor of the electron have played an important role in the development and verification of quantum electrodynamics.

Photon spin is associated with the polarization of light. An emerging application of spin is as a binary information carrier in spin transistors.

The original concept, proposed in , is known as Datta-Das spin transistor. The manipulation of spin in dilute magnetic semiconductor materials , such as metal-doped ZnO or TiO 2 imparts a further degree of freedom and has the potential to facilitate the fabrication of more efficient electronics.

There are many indirect applications and manifestations of spin and the associated Pauli exclusion principle , starting with the periodic table of chemistry.

Spin was first discovered in the context of the emission spectrum of alkali metals. In Wolfgang Pauli introduced what he called a "two-valued quantum degree of freedom" associated with the electron in the outermost shell.

This allowed him to formulate the Pauli exclusion principle , stating that no two electrons can have the same quantum state in the same quantum system.

This would violate the theory of relativity. Under the advice of Paul Ehrenfest , they published their results. Mathematically speaking, a fiber bundle description is needed.

The tangent bundle effect is additive and relativistic; that is, it vanishes if c goes to infinity. It is one half of the value obtained without regard for the tangent space orientation, but with opposite sign.

Thus the combined effect differs from the latter by a factor two Thomas precession. He pioneered the use of Pauli matrices as a representation of the spin operators, and introduced a two-component spinor wave-function.

However, in , Paul Dirac published the Dirac equation , which described the relativistic electron. In the Dirac equation, a four-component spinor known as a " Dirac spinor " was used for the electron wave-function.

In , Pauli proved the spin-statistics theorem , which states that fermions have half-integer spin and bosons have integer spin.

In retrospect, the first direct experimental evidence of the electron spin was the Stern—Gerlach experiment of

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